The US Congress has mandated certain government departments to come up with lists and profiles about hazardous substances available to interested parties. Workers are greatly confronted with different types of hazardous substances; hence, a resource for relevant information can be utilized as a reference tool.
Hazardous substances are the chemical elements referred to as persistent organic pollutants (POP) found within the environment since they are used by different industries in manufacturing and by agricultural sectors. These hazardous substances these are known as "priority list" because they tend to have one of the most potential threat towards the environment and also to human health. The matter of threat will mean constant exposure or prevalence inside atmosphere to cause injury to human health insurance and wildlife, contamination in water and its particular sources as well as pollution in air and soil. Due to this, employers and personnel are advised to get awareness about the a variety of hazardous substances for control, prevention and avoidance.
They are sorted into four types: corrosive, flammable or ignitable, reactive or combustible and toxic. As toxic hazardous substances, they're further categorized as anesthetics, asphyxiants, sensitizers, carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens.
Hazardous substances are thought corrosives should they have the ability to eat through metal, burn human or animal skin upon contact and exude vapors or fumes that induce stinging or burning sensation for the eyes. Examples of hazardous substances which can be corrosive are:
Fluoroantimonic Acid - This is also generally known as super acid due to its strength and power to burn through anything, including substances which are not designed to react to acid. It is a combined mix of antimony pentafluoride and hydrogen fluoride. According to scientific studies, it is stated to be 20 quintillion times more potent than sulfuric acid. This super acid come in industries which need chemical reactions in order to achieve transformation, as in the refinement of crude oil into high-octane gasoline or the transformation of oil shale into crude oil. They can also be found in industries involved within the manufacture of plastics.
Hydrochloric Acid - is commercially called muriatic acid which is considered to get one of probably the most versatile and important chemical compound in manufacturing industries. Hydrochloric Acid is chlorine gas burned in hydrogen to create hydrogen chloride (HCl). HCl, when joined with water, will release hydronium ions to create hydrochloric acid and become commercially available into two grades; the technical grade, containing concentrations of 35-38% as well as the commercial grade known as muriatic acid, with concentrations of 30-32%. In industries, the technical grade is used in metals, electroplating, in activating geothermal oil wells, processing of electronic products and output of fertilizers and dyes. In the food industry, HCl is utilized for processing starch, glucose and protein. Muriatic acids are popularly used in households as effective stain removers for floor tiles in addition to other kitchen and bathroom fixtures.
Sulfuric Acid - This substance is also known as oil of vitriol or vitriol and is industrially processed by dissolving sulfur trioxide in water. Once it can be made to reach saturation point, it becomes fuming sulfuric acid referred to as oleum to get used in processing other organic chemicals. Sulfuric acid can be considered one of one of the most important chemicals in industrial sectors utilised in manufacturing dyes, pigments, fertilizers, detergents, explosives, inorganic salts and acid. It can also be the main acid substance in lead-acid storage batteries. Other uses may be found in the petroleum refining industries and metallurgical processing.
Nitric Acid - This hazardous substance is extremely corrosive, can have the properties of fuming corrosive liquid which is considered an inorganic compound. Its importance can be found in industries involved inside manufacture of fertilizers and explosives, as well as inside reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It is commercially used by steel etching and photoengraving.
Please proceed towards the next page for descriptions regarding other sorts of hazardous substances to our environment.
A hazardous substance is considered flammable or ignitable if it easily bursts into flames and possesses certain qualities of your fire hazard. Aerosols are considered flammable if this yields a flame projection of more than 18 inches when subjected to a test method called 16 CFR 1500 45 with the full valve opened. Some liquid substances could be flammable with a flash point at 100 °F, while some flammable liquids are mixtures who have flash points of 141 °F or higher. Gasoline and solvents are easily identifiable as flammable hazardous substances but you might not be conscious of some food, metal dusts and wood also possess ignitable compositions.
A substance is flammable or becomes flammable if there are three elements present: oxygen, fuel and igniter as in the form of heat. Keep in mind that oxygen is usually present since it is always inside the atmosphere. The igniter will provide the spark to initiate the fireplace, while fuel will keep the flame burning. Examples of igniters are flying or stationary sparks, open flames, static electricity, friction, heat, welding arc, cigarette butts with embers, pilot light and other ignition sources.
As your guide, flammable substances like gasoline, acetone, ammonia, ethylene oxide and pentane are liquid hazardous substances; acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide are gaseous forms while solids like rubber, plastic, wood, packaging, textiles, plastic foams, wood dust, sugar dust and flour dust may also be flammable. In case fire or explosion does occur, immediately smother the fireplace with a thick blanket or non-flammable material to remove oxygen since fire is not sustained inside absence of this element.
A reactive or combustible hazardous substance has a tendency to create into poisonous gas or explode when combined with another chemical. One good example is chlorine bleach which becomes reactive and can create a poisonous substance if combined with ammonia. Other samples of reactive or combustible hazardous substances are linseed oil as paint ingredient, oily cotton waste, carbon, copra and white phosphorus which react if it comes talking to air. Some chemicals are known to get water-reactive like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, anhydrides, hydrides, sodium hydrosulfite and aluminum phosphide.
It is vital for workers to learn the water-reactive and air-reactive materials they are handling, that might even include cleaning materials which are combustible. Storing them in wet conditions must nitric oxide enhance be avoided or making sure that these are kept in compatible containers who have equal strength should be observed. Learning of such water-reactive combustible materials can also be important, that is to avoid using water when looking to douse the fireplace. Making use of the right Class D Fire Extinguisher will be the safe option.
Persistent organic pollutants which are toxic have grown to be widespread and varied; hence, the examples given below are according to their manner of toxicity or toxic behavior. This is vital especially in workplaces or occupations which involve printing, painting, coating and the manufacture of paints or coats, degreasing, dry cleaning, dye workers, crafting as inside the application of glues and other alike solvents, carpentry, textile making, airplane refitting, refining along with handling of polymers, pharmaceuticals and agricultural products. The following will be the sub-classifications of toxic substances:
Anesthetic /De-sensitizing/ Paralyzing- which means the toxic or hazardous substance may cause numbness for the point of impairing body and mind functions. De-sensitizing substances are often seen in solvents like n-hexane, methyl butyl ketone and carbon disulfide.
Asphyxiants- The most common asphyxiants are deadly carbon monoxide which causes blockage that prevents the exchange of oxygen inside the body. Another most popular example will be the combination of bleach and ammonia wherein oxygen displacement causes distress in the respiratory system.
Sensitizers 'are hazardous substances that can cause allergic reactions like formaldehyde, algicides and similar biological agents, baker's yeast and isocyanate-based foam products. These will also be present in spores, molds and mildew as they contain mycotoxins whose severity could affect persons who don't have allergies. Mold spores may seem on your walls since they emanate from volatile organic compounds (VOC) or materials who have been confronted with high humidity that produce moisture, that promotes spore or mold growth.
Please proceed on the next page to the continuation of other toxic substances.
Carcinogens- are cancer causing agents within asbestos, cigarettes, genetically modified foods, benzene as well as other substances which are labeled and marked with the risk indicators R40, R45 or R49. The most typical carcinogenic substances can be found in workplaces, consumer products, pet products and even food products. Examples of carcinogenic chemicals and substances are formaldehyde, paradichlorobenzene commonly encountered as ingredient in toilet bowl cleaners, perchloroehtylene commonly present in dry-cleaning fluids, carpet cleaners and spot removers, dichlorophenooxyacetate and sodium 2 which are pesticide ingredients, quarterium 15, FD & C Red 40, phenol fluoride, along with a host of other chemical substances as well as tobacco or cigarette and smog.
Mutagens- are substances that will alter the structure or makeup of cells or the DNA which may be caused by electromagnetic radiation like x-rays, cosmic rays, gamma rays and ultraviolet light. Mutagens are different from carcinogens since some mutagens do not cause cancer in humans but only in animals. They often lead towards the creation of free-radicals inside a cell which may cause damage towards the DNA. However, many experts have scientifically observed that DNA is actually damaged but can also be constantly repaired.
Teratogens-These are substances called feto-toxic substances or reprotoxins. They tend to influence the fertility in male and female because they affect the sperm or egg cells. Prevention or caution should apply not just during pregnancy or nursing but before the child reproduction and bearing stage. These substances must have proper labels and clearly marked using the indicators like: R60 (damage fertility); R61 (damage an unborn baby); R62 (perils associated with decreasing fertility); R63 (might bring about damage to an unborn child) and R64 (could quite possibly bring about damage by way of breast-feeding).
Examples are ethylene glycol ethers used inside semi-conductor industry, paint manufacture or maintenance. Tetracholoroethylene, xylene, toluene, styrene, acetone, benzene and methylene chloride, butanol and isopropanol are a few of the organic and inorganic chemical substance present in industrial workplaces viewed as teratogens.
Obviously, the list of forms of hazardous substances is pretty long though incomplete. A tool you can use in case you must research or verify certain chemical substances is the Environmental Protective Agency's (EPA's) Toxic Reference Database (ToxRefDB).
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